虎扑足球

中文
“群体免疫”的前世今生
2021-10-10 来源:《光明日报》 作者:张浚
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  近现代以来,在自由和社会公平正义之间,英国的精英阶层选择了前者,使得贫困成为英国社会久拖不决的问题。自由主义在英国长期占据主流,在这种思想传统中,英国的政策制定者习惯于从劳动力的生产与再生产的角度来考虑针对老、病、残等弱势群体的政策。 

  自由主义漂洋过海,传播到美国,美国的经济社会制度与英国如出一辙。由此不难理解“群体免疫”之说发端于英国,又事实上实行于美国。 

  MEIYINGLIANGGEDIANXINGDEZIYOUZIBENZHUYIGUOJIAZAIXINGUANFEIYANYIQINGZHIZHONGDOUSUNSHICANZHONG。ZHI2020NIAN8YUECHU,ZUOYONGSHIJIESHANGZUIFADAYILIAOTIXIDEMEIGUO,MEI10WANRENZHONGDEQUEZHENBINGLISHUGAODA1472LI,SHIZHONGGUODE200DUOBEI。

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  1 马尔萨斯“人口论”的影响 

  YIQINGQIJIANDE“QUNTIMIANYI”SHIDEZHENDUIMAERSASIHETADE《RENKOULUN》DEZHENGLUNZHONGXINTAITOU。YOUBIYAOHUIGUYIXIA,MAERSASIZAI《RENKOULUN》ZHONGDOUSHUOLEXIESHENME,YIZHIYUZHEIBUZHUZUOZIWENSHIJIBEISHOUZHENGYI,YANXUZHIJIN。

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  JIYUZHEIYANGDEJIBENRENSHI,MAERSASIDUIGEZHONGJIPINCUOSHIYUYIJIANJUEDEFOUDING。

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  YINCI,MAERSASIGANKAIDAO:“YAOFANGZHIPINQIONGDEFASHENG,AYA!NEISHIRENLISUOZUOBUDAODE。TURANNULIQUZUOTIANRANZUOBUCHENGGONGDESHIQING,HUPUZUQIUBUJINXISHENGLEKENENGDELIYI,ERQIEXISHENGLEQUESHIDELIYI。”

  GENJUMAERSASIDEZHEIXIEGUANDIAN,SHEHUIZIYUANYINGGAIJIZHONGYUZUIYOUXIAOLVDELAODONGRENKOU,ERNEIXIEWUXIAODELAODONGLI——WULUNSHIYINWEINIANLAOHUOSHANGCANERDAOZHILAODONGNENGLISANGSHI,HUOSHIYINWEIGERENDEDAODEDUOLUO,HAISHIYINWEIJINGJIZHOUQIBIANHUAHEJINGJIJIEGOUDIAOZHENGERWUFAJIUYE——YIJUZIRANFAZESHIYINGGAIBEITAOTAIDE,JIUZHUZHEIXIERENQUNHUILANGFEISHEHUIZIYUAN。JINGUANMAERSASIDEZHUZHANGYOUWEIJIDUJIAODEJIBENDAODEGUANNIANHERENDAOZHUYIDEYUANZE,QUEZAIYINGGUODEJINGYINGQUANZHONGSHOUHUOLEHENDUOFENSI。QIZHONGBIANYOUTONGSHIDAIDEJINGJIXUEJIADAWEI·LIJIATU,TACENGPINGLUNSHUO:“GUANYUMAERSASIXIANSHENGDE《RENKOULUN》,WOZAIZHEILINENGYOUJIHUIBIAOSHIZANYANG,BUSHENGXINXING。FANDUIZHEIBUWEIDAZHUZUOZHIRENDEGONGJIZHINENGZHENGMINGTADELILIANG。”TONGSHI,MAERSASIDERENKOULILUNYEDUIYINGGUOZHENGFUDUIDAIPINKUNRENKOUDEZHENGCECHANSHENGLEJUDADEYINGXIANG。DANGSHIYINGGUOSHOUXIANGXIAOWEILIAN·PITECENGGULISHENGYU,RENWEIJIBIANSHIQIONGRENDUOSHENGHAIZIYEHUISHIGUOJIAFUZU,KESHI,ZAI《RENKOULUN》CHUBANZHIHOU,PITEFANGQILETADEXINDE《JIPINFA》,CIHOUHAIJIEJIANLEMAERSASI。

  2 英国近现代史上“自由”的真相 

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  ZHUISUYINGGUOJINXIANDAIDELISHI,ZAIZHONGDADEWEIJISHIKEWEIRUOSHIQUNTITIGONGBIYAOBAOZHANGLAIWEIHUSHEHUITUANJIE,YECONGLAIBUSHIYINGGUOZHENGFUDEYOUXIANZHENGCEMUBIAO。ZAIDIERCISHIJIEDAZHANZHONG,LAONIANREN、MANXINGBINGHUANZHEHENEIXIEWOCHUANGBUQIDEBINGRENBUDEBUZISHENGZIMIE。DANGSHIDEYIWEIWEISHENGGUANYUANZAIJI《YINGGUOYILIAO》DEXINZHONGXIEDAO:“WOCONGJUEDUIKEKAODEQUDAOLEJIEDAO,ZAIGUOQUJIGEYUEZHONG,ZAIHUPUZUQIUDEYIXIEBEIFANFUHONGZHADEDACHENGSHIDEYIXIE(YILIAO)JIGOUZHONG,HAIYOUCHENGBAI——RUGUOBUSHICHENGQIAN——MANXINGBINGHUANZHE。WOHAILEJIEDAO,JINGUANHENDUOMANXINGBINGHUANZHEZAIHONGZHAZHONGSHENWANG,LINGWAIYIXIEZHONGSHANG,ZAIYIXIEQINGKUANGXIATAMENJUZHUDEJIANZHUWUBEIYANZHONGSUNHUAI,JIBINGRENHEYIHURENYUANDOUDAILAIJIDABUBIAN,WEISHENGBUQUEJIANJUEDIJUJUEBAZHEIXIEBUXINGDE、WOCHUANGBUQIDEBINGRENZHUANYIDAOCHENGSHIZHIWAIXIANGDUIANQUANHESHUSHIDEDIFANG。”

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  3 在大西洋彼岸更无助的弱势群体 

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  (作者:张浚,系中国社会科学院欧洲研究所研究员、国际发展合作与福利促进研究中心主任) 

ZERENBIANJI:WANGNING

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