虎扑足球

中文
字与词勾勒中国——《新华字典》12版这样修订
2021-10-10 来源:《光明日报》 作者:刘丹青
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  《XINHUAZIDIAN》BUDANSHIXINZHONGGUOJIDAIGUORENZUISHUXIZUIZHONGQINGDEYUWENGONGJUSHU,ERQIEYESHIXINZHONGGUOCHENGLIZHICHUZUIYOUBIAOZHIXINGDEWENHUAJIAOYUCHANPINZHIYI。《XINHUAZIDIAN》DEQIDONGBIANZUAN,BIAOSHIZHEWOGUOWUQIANNIANLISHISHANGYIGESHENGKUANGKONGQIANDEJIAOYUDAFAZHAN、WENHUADAPUJIDEZHANXINSHIDAIDEDAOLAI。ER12BANDECHUBAN,ZESHI《XINHUAZIDIAN》JICHENGCHUANTONG、YUSHIJUJIN、FUWUGUORENDECHUXINZAIXINSHIDAIDECHONGFENZHANSHI。

  新中国标志性的文化产品 

虎扑足球  《XINHUAZIDIAN》DE“XINHUA”ERZI,ZHENQIEFANYINGLETAGEN71NIANQIANDANSHENGDEXINZHONGGUO——XINZHONGHUADEJINMILIANXI。XINZHONGGUOCHENGLIZHICHU,BAIFEIDAIXING,GUOMINJINGJIYAOHUIFU、GUOMINJIAOYUYAOPUJI、GANQUNWENHUAYAOTIGAO,YIBENNENGMANZUGUORENXUEXIWENHUA、DUXIEWENZIJIBENXUYAODEHAOYONG、SHIYONG、QUANWEIDEZIDIAN,CHENGWEIGUOJIAHESHEHUIDEJINPOXUQIUHEZHANGYUANXUYAO。ZHUMINGZUOJIA、JIAOYUJIA,SHIRENZHONGYANGRENMINZHENGFUCHUBANZONGSHUFUSHUZHANGJIANBIANSHENJUJUZHANGYESHENGTAOXIANSHENGJIGUOJIAZHISUOJI,XIANGRENMINZHISUOXIANG,JISHIFAQIZAI1950NIAN8YUECHENGLIXINHUACISHUSHE,QIJINYI70NIAN,YOUCIKAIQILE《XINHUAZIDIAN》DEBIANZUANGONGZUO,BINGWEITUOZHUMINGYUYANXUEJIAWEIJIANGONGXIANSHENGZHUCHIBIANXIE,YEXIANSHENGQINZIDANRENZIDIANSHENDING。JINGGUOZHUBIANHEBIANZHEMENDEQIXINNULI,DAO1953NIAN12YUE,《XINHUAZIDIAN》ZHENGSHICHUBAN。《XINHUAZIDIAN》YIMIANSHI,JIUYIQIYOUZHI、BIANJIE、HAOYONGDEPINXINGHUODELEXUEXIAOSHISHENGHEYIWANRENMINDEXIAI,CHENGWEIDAZHONGDUSHUSHIZI、XUEXIWENHUADELIANGSHIYIYOUNAIZHIZHONGSHENBANLV,BINGHENKUAICHENGWEIGEJIEXINMUZHONGZUIQUANWEIDEXIAOXINGYUWENCISHU,HAIDUOCIBEIGUOJIALINGDAORENDANGZUOZHENGUILIWU,ZAIWAIFANGSHIZENGSONGJIWAIGUOLINGDAOREN、HAIWAIWENJIAOJIGOUHUOZAIGUONEITANWANGSHIZENGSONGJINONGCUNXUESHENGJIATING。2019NIAN“QINGZHUZHONGHUARENMINGONGHEGUOCHENGLI70ZHOUNIANDAXINGCHENGJIUZHAN”SHELILE《XINHUAZIDIAN》ZHUANJU,SHANGMIANBAIMANLELINIANCHUBANDEGEBAN《XINHUAZIDIAN》,QUELILETAZUOWEIXINZHONGGUOBIAOZHIXINGWENHUACHANPINDEDIWEI。

  1956NIAN,GUOJIAJIANGXINHUACISHUSHEZHENGTIBINGRUZHONGGUOKEXUEYUAN(YEJIUSHIXIANZAIDESHEHUIKEXUEYUAN)YUYANYANJIUSUO,YOUCI,《XINHUAZIDIAN》DEBIANZUANXIUDINGZHONGRENLISHIDILUODAOLEYUYANYANJIUSUODEJIANSHANG,TONGSHIZIDIANDECHUBANRENWUYEZHUANYOUSHANGWUYINSHUGUANCHENGDAN,YOUCIKAISHILEYUYANSUOHESHANGWUYINSHUGUANZAICISHUBIANZUANCHUBANFANGMIANZHANGDA60DUONIANDEXIESHOUHEZUOGUANXI,SHUANGFANGGONGTONGNULIWEIHUHEBUDUANTISHENG《XINHUAZIDIAN》DEXUESHUZHILIANGHESHEHUIYINGXIANG。

  精益精益,与时俱进的修订 

  CISHUDESHENGMINGZAIYUSHIJUJINDEXIUDING。ZIDIANDEZHOUQIXINGXIUDING,YIFANGMIANSHIYINYINGSHIDAIDEFAZHANJINBUDAILAIDEYUYANBENSHENDEFAZHANBIANHUA,LINGYIFANGMIANZESHIYITUOXUESHUYANJIUDEXINCHENGGUOLAIBUDUANTISHENGBIANZUANZHILIANG,MIANXIANGKEXUEXING、GUIFANXINGHESHIYONGXING,SHIXIAOZIDIANJINGYIQIUJING、GENJINSHIDAI、YONGWUZHIJING,RANGGUANGDASHISHENGHEGEJIERENSHIZAISHOUZHONGHEANTOUYONGYOUYIBENGENGXINDEZIDIAN、GENGHAOYONGDEZIDIAN。《XINHUAZIDIAN》LIJINGXIUDING,YINGLAILEJINTIANDEDI12BAN。

虎扑足球  《XINHUAZIDIAN》DEXIUDING,LILAISHIYUYANYANJIUSUODEDASHI。MEICIXIUDING,SUOLIDOUDIAODONGJINGBINGQIANGJIANG,YIQUEBAOXIUDINGZHILIANG,LISHISHANGDUOWEIXUESHUDASHIQINZIZHUCHIXIUDING,XINGCHENGLEDASHIXIUDINGXIAOZIDIANDECHUANTONG。

  MEIYIBANDEFAXINGZHISHI,YESHIXIAYIBANDEXIUDINGGONGZUOKAISHIZHIJI。2011NIAN11BANFAXINGHOU,HUPUZUQIUZAILIANGSANNIANZHIHOUJIUKAISHILECHOUZU12BANDINGZU,ZUOHAOGEFANGMIANZHUNBEI,DAO2015NIANZHENGSHIQIDONGXIUDING。BENCIXIUDINGSHIJINRUXINSHIDAIYIHOUDESHOUCIXIUDING,HUPUZUQIUJIYULEGAODUZHONGSHI。2017NIAN,YUANCIDIANBIANJISHIZAIYUANLINGDAODALIZHICHIXIAKUOJIANWEIZHONGGUOSHEKEYUANCISHUBIANZUANYANJIUZHONGXIN,XIAMIANZHUANMENSHELILE《XINHUAZIDIAN》BIANJISHI,JIAQIANG《XINHUAZIDIAN》BIANXIUGONGZUO。XIUDINGZUTONGGUOGUANGFANZUOTAN、DUOCHUDIAOCHA、ZHUANXIANGYANJIU、ZHONGDIANGONGGUAN、GERENFENGONG、TUANDUIHEZUO、TINGQUYIJIAN、FANFUDAMO,SUONEIWAIYUANNEIWAIZHUANJIASHENGAO,ZAIMIANLINYIQINGDETESHUSHIKEKEFUKUNNAN,YUSHANGWUYINSHUGUANTONGSHIYIQIWANCHENGBIANXIAOGONGZUODEZUIHOUCHONGCI,ZHONGYUZAI《XINHUAZIDIAN》QIDONGBIANZUAN70ZHOUNIANZHIJITUICHULE12BAN。

  更新的字典、更好用的字典 

  BENCIXIUDINGZAIYISHIXINGTAIFANGMIANTICHULEGENGGAODEYAOQIU。QUANMIANJIANCHA,CONGYANSHENGAO,JINYIBUTISHENGZIDIANDEZHENGNENGLIANG。CIWAI,BENCIXIUDINGDUIZIDIANNEIRONGHETILIDEGAIJINZHUYAOYOUYIXIAFANGMIAN。

  (一)收字进一步落实国家规范,满足教学需求 

  BENCIXIUDINGZAISHOUZIFANGMIANDEZHONGDIANZHIYISHIJINYIBULUOSHIGUOJIAWENZIGUIFAN。CHULEQUANMIANSHOULU2013NIANGONGBUDE《TONGYONGGUIFANHANZIBIAO》ZHONG8105GEGUIFANHANZIYIWAI,HAIZENGSHOULE2013NIANYIHOUHUOPIDEJIGEXINGUIFANZI——“[JIANTUYI](NI)nǐ”“[JIANTUER](FU)fū”“[JIANTUSAN](LI)l씓[JIANTUSI]tián”“[JIANTUWU]ào”DENGJIGEXINDEYUANSUYONGZI,BINGZAIZHENGWENZITIAOHEFULU《YUANSUZHOUQIBIAO》LITONGSHITIXIAN,FANGBIANCHAJIAN。TONGSHICONGJIAOXUEXUYAOCHUFA,ZENGBULEJIAOYUBUZUIXINTONGBIANXIAOXUEYUWENJIAOCAILISHEJIDE《TONGYONGGUIFANHANZIBIAO》WEISHOUHANZI,RU“[JIANTULIU]qū”“YUEyu蔓[JIANTUQI](RUI)ruí”DENGZI。CONGERSHIXIANLE《TONGYONGGUIFANHANZIBIAO》HEJIAOYUBUTONGBIANXIAOXUEYUWENJIAOCAIYONGZIDEQUANFUGAI。

  CONG《XINHUAZIDIAN》1953NIANBANBENSHOUDANZI6840GE(HANYITIZI),DAO12BANSHOU13000ZI,SHOUZISHUZENGJIALEJIANGJINYIBEI,QIZHONGGUIFANZITOU9460GE。

  (二)引导读音规范和用字规范 

  TONGGUOZENGBUZITOUDANGDAIDUYINYINDAODUYINGUIFAN。LIRU“KUIFA”DE“KUI”ZIZENGBULEDONGHANZHANGZHONGJINGDEZHONGYIMINGZHU《JINKUIYAOLVE》LIDE“KUI”guìYIDU,LINGWAI,WEIXIANGGANGTEQUCHANGJIANDIMING“ZEIzéYUYONG”DE“ZEI”ZENGBULE“ZEI”DEZITOUDUYIN。DUIZHEIGEZIHUPUZUQIUJINXINGZHUANXIANGYANJIU,ZUIHOUQUEDINGZHEIGEYUEYUDEZI“ZEIzé”SHIBIJIAOHESHIDEDUYIN。

虎扑足球  TONGGUOWANSHANSHIWENYONGYUYINDAOYONGZIGUIFAN。BIRUSHUOSHENYANGDE“SHEN”TAZAIGUSHULIMIANDANGZUOCHENMEIDE“chén”,YIQIANJIUSHUO“SHEN”HAIYOUYIGE“chén”DEDUYIN,“SHENchénTONG‘CHEN’JIRENYIGEWUJIE,“SHEN”XIANZAIHAINENGDANGZUOCHENMEIDE“CHEN”LAIYONG,HUPUZUQIUXIEZUO“JIUTONG‘CHEN’”JIUJIALEYIGEZI。ZHENGGEZHEIPICHULIYIHOUGENGJIAMINGQUEGUIFAN,JIUSHIZHEIGEZIYIQIANSHIKEYIZUOWEICHENMEIDE“CHEN”LAIYONG,JINTIANHUPUZUQIUXIECHENMEIDE“CHEN”BUYINGGAIXIESHENYANGDE“SHEN”,JIZHAOGULECHAYUEDEXUQIU,YOUTUCHULEGUIFAN。

  (三)增补新词新义,反映当代语言生活 

虎扑足球  ZAIXIAOXINGZIDIANRONGLIANGFANWEINEI,GENJINSHIDAI,FENXIXIANSHIYULIAO,SHILIANGZENGBUJINNIANLAIYIJINGWENDINGXIALAIDEXINCIXINYI。ANZHAOYINXU,LIRUXINZENG“BAOBIAO、BAOHONG、BOYANQIU、ZHONGCHOU、CHUXIN、DAKA、DAIGOU、DAIJIA、DAIYAN、DAOFU、DIANZAN、DINGCENGSHEJI、ERWEIMA、FANFUCHANGLIAN、FENSI、FEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHAN、GONGJIANGJINGSHEN、GUANWANG、HAIGUI、HUANGNIUDANG、JIEPING、JIUJIA、LAJIFENLEI、LITING、LIULIANG、LUOHUN、MIAOSHA、MAIDAN、MAIMENG、NIXI、PENGSHA、QINGHAOSU、SHUAKA、SHUALIAN、SHUAPING、SHUJUKU、WANGGOU、XINHUOXIANGCHUAN、YUJING、ZHIKU、ZHUIWEI、ZIMEITI”DENGXINCI。YOUXIEYIFUYINCIDEXINGSHIZAIDANZIDIXIAYONGFANGKUOHAOYINCHUBINGJIYUJIANYAOSHIYI,RU“CHU”XIAXINZENG:[CHUXIN]ZUICHUDEXINYUAN、XINNIAN:~BUGAI|BUWANG~;YOUXIEYIDANZIDELICIXINGSHICHUXIAN,RU“FEI”DE“QIANZHUI”YIXIANGXIAZENGJIA:FEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHAN,“GOU”DE“MAI”YIXIANGXIAZENGJIA:WANGGOU。ZENGJIALEHUPUZUQIUXIANZAIDESHENGHUOQIXI。

  XINZENGYIXIEZI、CITIEJINDANGDAISHEHUISHENGHUODEYIXIANGHEYONGFA,RU“BA、BEI、CHAO、CHAO、DANG、GUA、LA、MENG、PAI、PIN、SE、DU”DENGZIXIAZENGBUDEXIANGGUANXINYIXIANG。JUTIRU“MENG”ZENGJIAYIXIANG:ZHINENERRERENXIAIDE:MAI~(GUZUOMENGTAIYITAORENXIHUAN);ZHEIGESHIXIANDAIDECHANGYONGCI。[CHONGDIAN]ZENGJIABIYUYI:YUBUCHONGZHISHI,TIGAOJINENGDENG:ZHIYOUBUDUAN~,CAINENGGENSHANGSHIDAI。

虎扑足球  GENJUYUYANSHISHIHESHIJISHIYONGQINGKUANG,SHIDANGGAIJINHEWANSHANLEMOUXIESHIYI,RU:[MEITI]ZHICHUANBOXINXIDEGONGJU,RUBAOKAN、GUANGBO、DIANSHI、HULIANWANGDENG:WANGLUO~。YUANLAIDI11BANJIUMEIYOUHULIANWANGYEMEIYOUWANGLUOMEITIZHEIGEJULI。

虎扑足球  BAXUESHUYANJIUHETIANYEDIAOCHAJIEHEQILAI,QUANMIANXIUDINGLESHEJIDIMINGDETIAOMU。YOUDEZIZENGJIALEDIMINGYIXIANG,RU:“ZUI”:SUZUO“JU”(XIANDUOYONGYUDIMING):JIANSHA~(ZAIXIANGGANGTEBIEXINGZHENGQU)。“DANGdàng”:TONG“DANG”(DUOYONGYUDIMING),YINWEIAOMENYONGLEZHEIGEZI:~ZI(zǎi)DAO(ZAIAOMENTEBIEXINGZHENGQU)。YOUDEGENJUXINGZHENGQUHUADEBIANHUAXIUGAILESHIYI,RU“HENGhèng”:YONGYUDIMING:DA~SHANG(ZAITIANJINSHIJIZHOU)(11BANZUO“JIXIAN”),XIANZAI12BANJIUXIECHENGLEZAITIANJINSHIJIZHOU。

  QITAGAIJINHAIBAOKUO:CHATUZHUZHONGZONGHEXINGHEXITONGXING;GAIJINHEWANSHAN《BUSHOUJIANZIBIAO》,GENGJIAFANGBIANDUZHEJIANZI;CONGDANGDAISHIJIXUYAOCHUFA,ZHONGXINBIANZHILE《XINJIUZIXINGDUIZHAOBIAO》、YIJU《BIAODIANFUHAOYONGFA》(GB/T 15834—2011)GENGXINLE《CHANGYONGBIAODIANFUHAOYONGFAJIANBIAO》、YIJUXINZILIAOGENGXINLE《SHIJIEGEGUOHEDIQUMIANJI、RENKOU、SHOUDOU(HUOSHOUFU)YILANBIAO》《DIZHINIANDAIJIANBIAO》《YUANSUZHOUQIBIAO》DENG。

虎扑足球  CIWAI,ZAISHANGWUYINSHUGUANDENULIXIA,DI12BANSHOUCISHIXIANLETONGBURONGHECHUBAN,QISHICHANGBANBENZAIZHENGWENGEYEDOUSHEERWEIMA,KETONGGUOSHOUJISAOMAZHIJIEJINRU“XINHUAZIDIANAPP”DEJIEMIAN,XIANGSHOUDUOMEITIDEZHISHIFUWU。

虎扑足球  ZUOWEI《XINHUAZIDIAN》DEBIANXIUDANWEI,HUPUZUQIUSHENZHI,ZHEIBUXIAOXINGZIDIANCHENGZAIZHEQIANBEIDECHUXIN、DANGDAIDESHIMING、WEILAIDEXIWANG。HUPUZUQIUJIANGYIRUJIWANG,YIDUIGUOJIA、DUIRENMINDEGAODUZERENGAN,ZUOHAOMEIYICIXIUDING,YUSHIJUJINDIFENGXIANZUIGAOPINZHIDECISHU,BUGUFU《XINHUAZIDIAN》SHANGDE“XINHUA”ERZI,RANGTALIJIUMIXIN,YUMANZHONGHUA!

  (作者:刘丹青,系中国社科院语言所原所长,第12版《新华字典》修订总监) 

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