虎扑足球

中文
诗性智慧与智态化叙事
2021-11-18 来源:《中国社会科学报》2020年11月18日第2050期 作者:丹珍草
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 格萨尔史诗从口头走向书面 资料图片

  20SHIJIMO,LAOLI·HANGKEZAIDUIXIFANGSHISHIDEYANJIUZHONGFAXIAN,SHISHIDEFANLISHIDUOYANGDE,TAYUYAN21SHIJIDUISHISHIDEYANJIUJIANGHUIGENGJIADUOYUANHUA。JIN20NIANLAI,SUIZHESHIJIEWENHUADUOYANGXINGGUANNIANDESHENRU,YIJILIANHEGUOJIAOKEWENZUZHIDUIFEIWUZHIWENHUAYICHANBAOHUYUYANJIUDEZHONGSHI,ZHONGGUOSHAOSHUMINZU“SANDASHISHI”(《GESA(SI)ER》《MANASI》《JIANGGEER》)YANJIUSHOUDAOSHIJIEGUANZHU。DUIMINJIANKOUTOUWENXUE、SHISHICHUANCHENG、SHISHIXUEDELILUNTANTAO,YOUQISHIDUIZHONGGUOSHAOSHUMINZUHUOTAIKOUCHUANSHISHIZHENGUIJIAZHIDEFAJUEHEYANJIU,KAISHIJINRUSHENDUKAOCHAFENXIHEXUELIYANJIUJIEDUAN;DUISHISHIGUANNIAN、SHISHICHUANTONGDERENZHI,YIJISHISHIDEYANJIUFANSHI,ZHENGZAIQIAORANFASHENGBIANHUA。YOUNUOBUWANGDANZHUANZHU、QINGHAIRENMINCHUBANSHECHUBANDE《SHIXINGZHIHUIYUZHITAIHUAXUSHICHUANTONG:GESAERCHUANCHENGLEIXINGDEZAIFAXIAN》,TONGGUODUIGESAERSHISHISHUXIEYIRENDANZENGZHABADEXUSHIWENBEN、YIRENCHENGZHANGYUJINGDESHENDUZHUIZONGYANJIU,JIANGDANZENGZHABADECHUANGZUOCHENGWEI“ZHITAIHUAXUSHI”WENBEN——YIZHONGXINDEGESAERSHISHIXUSHIXINGTAI。

  “ZHITAIHUA”SHIZANGCHUANFOJIAOFUZANGCHUANTONGZHONGDEYIGEGAINIAN,YOUSHIBEICHENGWEI“ZHITAIHUAFUZANG”,ZANGYUWEI“TANANG”(Dag-snang),ZAIFOJIAOWENXIANZHONGBEIYIWEI“JINGXIANG”,RENWEIYIQIESHENGWUDOUYOUYIZHONGXIANZAIDEYUANSHIZHI,YIZHONGCHAOYUEYIQIESHISUPIANZHI、WANGNIANDEZHIJUE,TOUSHICHUSHIWUZIXINGHUOBENTISHIJIE,SHICHAOHURENLEIYIBANSIWEIDINGSHIHECHAOYANSHIJIEDERENZHISHIJIAO。SUOWEI“ZHITAIHUA”XUSHI,JIUSHIZAICHUANTONGGESAERSHISHICHUANCHENGLEIXING,RUSHENSHOULEIXING、YUANGUANGLEIXING、JUEZANGLEIXING、DUNWULEIXING、YINSONGLEIXINGDENGJICHUSHANG,ZHONGXINDUISHISHICHUANCHENGLEIXINGJINXINGDEJIEGOUYUJIANGOU,BINGYIFENCENGHUAFENXIFAXIANDEYIZHONGXINDEGESAERSHISHIXUSHIXINGTAI。ZUOZHERENWEI,DANZENGZHABADEWENBENYUSHENSHOUYIREN、YINSONGYIRENDESHUOCHANGWENBEN,YIJIQITAJUEZANGWENBENJUNBUTONG,SHUYU“YINIANJUEZANGLEI”。DANZENGZHABADESHISHIGUSHIXIDEBINGFEICHUANTONGDEKOUERXIANGCHUAN,YIWUTEDINGDESHUOCHANGDIDIANHUOBIAOYANXINGHUODONG,ERSHIYISHUXIEFANGSHIFAJUEQIANZANGZAIYISHISHENCENGDESHISHIGUSHI,SHUYUGESAERYIRENGETISHENGMINGDEYIZHONGTESHUDEXINLITIYAN,SHIGESAERSHISHICONGKOUTOUZOUXIANGSHUMIAN、CONGSHIXINGZOUXIANGZHIXING、CONGSHISUXINGZOUXIANGSHENSHENGXINGDEGUODUXINGDETESHUWENBENXINGTAI。

  “以己度物”的主体性神话思维

  DANGDAIGESAERYIRENDANAOZHONGCUNLIUDESHENHUASIWEI,RUGUOTIXIANZAIWENBENCHUANGZUOZHONG,DANGYISHISHENCHUDESHISHIGUSHICIYUYONGXIANSHI,CHUANGZUOZHEDETIYANSHIFOUYIRANYOUYUANSHIDECHUNRENSHIKONGJIANDECHOUXIANGXING?QINENGZHIYUSUOZHIZHIJIANSHIFOUHUIYOUHEERWEIYIDEJIAORONG?ZUOZHEFAXIANZAIXUSHICELVEHECHUANGZUOFANGFASHANG,DANZENGZHABASHIYIFOJIAOJUEZANGJIFA,RUYIXIANG、MENGJING、MOBAI、FUHAOHEXIANGXIANGLIDENGZUOWEICHUANGZUOSHOUDUAN,JINERJIFACHUANGZUOJIQING。

虎扑足球  OUZHOUWENXUESHISHANGSHOUBUGERENCHUANGZUODEWENRENSHISHI《AINIEASIJI》,CHUANGZUOZHEWEIJIERYI《HEMASHISHI》WEIFANBEN,JIANGSHULETELUOYICHENGBEIGONGXIANHOU,AINIEASILVZHONGLAIDAOYIDALI,CHENGWEILUOMAKAIGUOZHIJUNDEGUSHI。QIWENBENDEJIEGOU、QINGJIE、RENWU、TICAIJUNCHUZITELUOYIZHANZHENG,QIANBANBU6JUANJIHUDOUSHIMOFANG《AODESAI》,HOUBANBU6JUANZEFANGXIE《YILIYATE》。WENBENXIUCIYANJIN,JINGZHIDELADINGYUXINIDIANYA,JUZIZHONGFUHEJUJIAODUO,SHUXIEYIJINGWANQUANMEIYOUKOUTOUWENXUEDETEDIAN。《AINIEASIJI》BUJINSHIOUZHOU“WENRENSHISHI”DEKAIDUAN,ERQIECHENGWEIHOUSHISHUMIANWENXUEDEDIANFAN。XIANGJIAOERYAN,DANZENGZHABACHUANGZUODE《GESAER》WENBEN,TONGYANGSHUYUGERENCHUANGZUODEWENRENSHISHI,BUGUOSHICONGGETISHENGMINGDEZHUTIXINGCHUFA,ZAIGANXINGDEXIUCI、YUCITIXIHESHIXINGDESHENHUASIWEIZHONG“YIJIDUWU”,WANGWANGFUZHEHENDUO“GERENHUALISHIXIANGXIANGLI”DEYINYU。“YIJIDUWU”,SHI“MISUOSI”(Mythos),ERFEI“LUOGESI”(Logos),GENGBUSHI“SAIYINSI”(Science),BIAOXIANWEISHUMIANHUA,SHIJISHANGRENGSHUMINJIANKOUTOUXINGWENBEN。

虎扑足球  SHUZHONGJIANGGAIWENBENGUILEIWEILUODESUOYANDE“ZIZHUANKOUSHUXING”WENLEI。ZHEIZHONGTESHUWENBEN,SHITADESHISHISHUXIEGENGXIANGZAILISHIHUAYU、WENXUEHUAYUYUGERENHUAYUZHIJIANDEYICITANXIAN,SHIMINJIANYIRENYUWENRENCHUANGZUOZHIJIANBICIJIHUODENENGDONGGUANXI。ZUOZHEJIANGDANZENGZHABADUISHISHIBENTIDUTEDESHENGMINGTIYAN,FANGZHIZAIQICHENGZHANGDEZIRANSHENGTAIHUANJINGHEMINJIANCHUANTONGWENHUAZHONG,YIJUYOUFUHAOXIANGZHENGYIYIDEXIEZUOSHIJIAO,GOULECHUGUSHICHUANGZUODECANZHAOWU。ZHENGSHIJIYUZHEIYANGTESHUDEDILIWENHUAKONGJIAN,DANZENGZHABAJIANGZHUTIXINGDETIYANXIANGXIANGYULIJIEGANWU,YOUJIRONGHEZAI“YIJIDUWU”DEZHUTIXINGSHENHUASIWEIZHONG。

  “想象性类概念”建构的英雄世界

  YIDALIZHEXUEJIAWEIKEZAIQIZHEXUERENLEIXUEZHUZUO《XINKEXUE》ZHONG,JIANG“SHIXINGZHIHUI”ZUOWEIXIANGXIANGDESHENMEIGONGTONGGAN,CHANSHILERENLEIXIANGXIANGLIRUHEGENZHIYUGETISHENGMING,BINGYUTAZHERONGTONG。TARENWEIRENLEIYUSHENGJULAIJIUYOUFEIFANDEXIANGXIANGLI,SHIXINGZHIHUIJIUSHIPINGSHENGDONGDEXIANGXIANGLICHUANGZAO,YIZHIGUANFANGSHIDUISHENGMINGBENZHIJINXINGGUANZHAO。

虎扑足球  CONG“SHENHUASIWEI”DAO“SHIXINGZHIHUI”,DANZENGZHABADE“ZHITAIHUA”XUSHIWENBENYEYI“XIANGXIANGXINGLEIGAINIAN”JIANGOULEYINGXIONGSHIJIE。ZUOZHEZAISHUZHONGFENXI,DANZENGZHABADECHUANGZUOYANSHU,KANSISHIYIZHONGSHUMIANHUADECHUANGZUO,SHIZESHIYIZHONGKOUTOUCHUANTONGZAILINGYIZHONGFANGSHIXIADEYANYI;QIWENBENZHONGCHUXIANDEGEZHONGRENWU、CHANGJING、ZHUTI、GUSHIFANXINGDENGZHUDUOSHIXIANG,KANSISHIGUSHIQINGJIEDEYIBANXINGZHANXIAN,SHIZESHIDUIXIANXIANGSHIJIEZAILINGYIZHONGSHIJIAOXIADEGUANCHAHEJIEDU,QINGZHULEYIRENDESHENGMINGYISHI。TADEWENBENSHIZAI“JINGWUBAJI、XINYOUWANREN”DEYIXIANGHUASHIJIEZHILVZHONG,YANYICHULAIDE“JINGSHENTUPU”。ZHEIGEJINGSHENTUPU,SHISHIXINGZHIHUIBUTONGYUSHIYONGLIXINGDEGANXINGZHIHUI,ERGETIQINGGANDEJIJING“GUANXIANG”,XINSIKUANGDA、JIANDANZHIPO,YESHIZANGWENHUADESHIGECHUANTONG,SHIZANGZUSHIXINGZHIHUIYUXIFANGSHIXINGZHIHUIDEXIANZHUBUTONG。“GUANXIANG”CHUANTONGJIANGXIANGXIANGLIDAIRUTEDINGSHENGMINGQINGJINGZHONG,JISHIDUIMINZULISHIHEWENHUAJIYIDEMIANHUAI,YESHIDUIGETISHENGMINGYIYIDEZHUIXUN,GENGSHIDUISHENGMINGBENTIJINGSHENDEYIZHONGMIANMICHUANCHENG。

虎扑足球  YIRENWENBENJIANGOUDEYINGXIONGSHIJIE,HAIZAIYUTA“ZIRENWEISHIZHIJIAZUDIZIDEZHUANSHI”(SHISHIYINGXIONGBULUOJIAZU)。ZHEIGEQIANGLIEDEZIWOXINLIANSHI,YESHICHUANGZUOZHEXIANGXIANGLIHEMENGJINGDEYINXIANHUODONGJIZHIYI。MENGZHONGFUXIANDESUOWEIJIAZUJIYI,NEIXIEQIANYISHIZHONGYINNIDEGUSHIRENWU、ZHUTI、QINGJINGDENG,JUNZAIQIANGDIAOCHUANGZUOZHEGETISHENGMINGYUZIRANHUANJINGDEGOUTONGYUJIAOLIU,SHIYISHUBENXINGDE“LINGYUN”XIANXIANYUQINGGANHUDONGDEBICIYINZHENG。ZHEIZHONG“XIANGXIANGXINGLEIGAINIAN”DAPOBINGZHONGZULETONGCHANGSUOWEIKONGJIANYUSHIJIANDEJIEGOU,CHUANGZUOZHUTIYIGETISHENGMINGWEINEIHE,GANSHOUXINLINGHEZIRANDEYUANSHIXING、YINYUXING。YUSHI,LAIZIBENYUANDESHIXING、MENGHUANXINGHEZIYOULINGHUODEXIANGXIANGLI,JIECHENGWEIQIWENBENCHUANGZUODELAIYUAN,CHUANGZUOYOUCIBIAOXIANCHUSHENGMINGQINGGANXINGHEJUXIANGXINGYITIHUA,SHISHIGUSHIYUSHENGMINGQINGGANXIANGXIANGTONGYIXINGDETEZHENG。

  “根隐喻”智慧的融合演绎

虎扑足球  YALISHIDUODESHUO,SHIGESHIYINYUDEYUYAN。MEIGUOZHEXUEJIAPAIPA1942NIANTICHUYINGXIANGSHENYUANDEYINYULILUN——“GENYINYU”(root metaphor),QINGXIDIJINTOUZHEZHEXUEDUILITONGYIDEYUANCHUYUNSI,ZHILIYUSHUOMINGRENLEIRUHERENSHISHIJIE、GUANCHASHIJIE。“GENYINYU”DEZHEXUESIWEI,CHANSHILERENLEIDEGAINIANXITONGBENZHISHANGDOUSHIYINYUSHIDE。YINYUBUJINCUNZAIYURENMENBIAOMIANYUYANDESHIYONGZHONG,HAICUNZAIYUSIXIANGYUWENBENDECHUANGZUOSHIJIANZHONG。YINZANGZAIRENMENSIWEIXITONGZHONGDE“GENYINYU”,CAISHIZHENZHENGQIZUOYONGDESHENCENGHEXINGAINIAN。

  RUGUOHUPUZUQIUBAZANGZUCHUANTONGWENHUAZUOWEICHANSHIDANZENGZHABASHIJIEGUAN、CHUANGZUOGUANHUXIANGLIANXIDE“GENYINYU”ZHONGXINFANCHOU,JIUNENGKANDAOSHIXINGBENZHITEZHENGDEYINYUHEXIANGXIANG,YUYIRENWENBENCHUANGZUOTUSHIDESHIXINGZHIHUISIWEIJIAOXIANGHUIYING、XIANGDEYIZHANG。JIANG“YUANSHIZHI”“FUZANG”“GESAER”HUOYIZIRANYURENSHIDE“GENYINYU”,YI“QIANWENBEN”DEFANGSHI“YINQIAN”ZAIWENBENXUSHIDEJIEGOUMOSHISHANG,XIANSHICHUCHUANGZUOZHUTIYUMINZUSHISHIJIANQIANSIWANLVDEZIRANLIANJIE。ZAIZANGWENHUADUIDAISHIWUDEYIZHONGTESHUSHIJIAOXIA,“YIJIDUWU”DEZHUTIXINGSHENHUASIWEI、CHUANGZUOTUSHIDEXIANGXIANGXINGLEIGAINIANHECHUANTONGWENHUA“GENYINYU”DERONGHEYANYI,ZUIZHONGWANCHENGLEGUANYUSHENGMINGZHEXUEDEYIXIANGHUAWENBEN,TONGGUO“GENYINYU”YINGSHETIHUI、CHUANDASHISHISHIJIEDEGUSHINEIHAN,CHUANCHENGBINGJIANGOULEGESAERSHISHIDEZHITAIHUAXUSHI。

  (作者单位:中国社会科学院民族文学研究所)

ZERENBIANJI:ZHANGYUEYING

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