虎扑足球

中文
浅析波兰“黄金时代”的兴衰
2019-11-02 来源:虎扑足球 作者: 何风
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  勃兴: 贵族“理想国”文化的建构

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  SHOUSHANGSHUYINSUYINGXIANGERBOXINGDEGUIZUWENHUAHEGUANNIAN,ZUOWEIKAICHUANGBOLAN“HUANGJINSHIDAI”DENEIZAIDONGLIERBEIGUIZUJIEJIGUANGFANSHENTOUDAOBOLANDEZHENGZHI、SHEHUIHEWENHUASHENGHUOLINGYU。ZAIZHENGZHISHANG,GUIZUCHUYUDUIQIANGDAWANGQUANDEKONGJUERDUXINBEICHENGWEI“HUANGJINZIYOU”DEZHENGZHIZHEXUE,DIZAOBINGFAZHANCHUDANGSHI“OUZHOUZUIMINZHUDEZHENGZHIZHIDU”——GUIZUMINZHUZHI。GUIZUMENYUANZESHANGPINGDENGYIDAI,BICIYI“XIONGDI”HUCHENG。XIANGDUI“PINGMIN”ERYAN,TAMENSHIYONGYOURENSHENHUOMIANQUAN、CAICHANMIANSHOUQINFANQUAN、XUANJUQUANHEBEIXUANJUQUAN,DAIBIAOGUOJIADE“BOLANRENMIN”。QISUOYOUCHENGYUAN,WULUNPINFUGUIJIAN,JUNBEIRENWEIJUYOUPINGDENGDEFALVDIWEI,XIANGYOUCONGSHINONGYESHENGCHAN、DUIWAIMAOYIHEZONGJIAOXINYANGDEWANQUANZIYOU,SHENZHIWOYOUXUANJUGUOWANG、SIXIAJIEMENGHEFANPANGUOWANGDEQUANLI。GUIZUMENTAOYONGLUOMAZHENGZHIWENHUA,TONGGUOPAIJILIANGYUANZHIQUANGUOYIHUICHENGWEIZUIGAOQUANLIJIGUAN,YILAIGUIZUDEGERENPINXINGBINGJIYU“QUANTIYIZHI”DELIFAYUANZEJUEDINGGUOJIASHIWU。WANGQUANZESHOUDAOYIHUIDEXUERUOHEZHIYUE,POYU“QIYUEGUANXI”ERQUFUYUGUIZUDETEQUANHEFALV。

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  衰落: “洪流”的侵袭

  1572NIANQIGEMENGTEERSHIQUSHI,YAGAILUOWANGCHAOANRANXIEMU。JUESIYINFALELIANGYUANGUIZUDEQUANLIDOUZHENG,YOUCIQUELIDE“ZIYOUXUANWANGZHI”(1573)CONGCICHENGWEIGUOJIACUNZAIDEJIAGOUJICHU,WEIGUIZUJINYIBUWENGUDIWEI、WEIHUTEQUANHEXIANZHIWANGQUANTIGONGLEFALVBAOZHANG,YEWEIBOLAN“HUANGJINSHIDAI”DESHUAILUOMAIXIALEHUOYIN。ZHI17SHIJIZHONGYE,TUOTAIYUGUIZU“QUANTIYIZHI”DEYUANZEYIJIZIYOUPINGDENGGUANNIANDE“ZIYOUFOUJUEQUAN”(1652)DEQUELI,ZHUBUYINFALEHUOHUANWUQIONGDEWUZHENGFUZHUANGTAI,QUANGUOYIHUIDETANHUANDAOZHIBOLANGUOLIXUERUO。YUCITONGSHI,GUIZUMINZHUZHIDEFENGJIANJINGJIJICHU——GUIZUDELAOYIZHIZHUANGYUANYEZAIJINGLILEYIGEDUOSHIJIDEFAZHANHOU,SHOUXIANZAIBOLANDE“ZHIMINDI”——WUKELANBENGFAWEIJI。

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虎扑足球  JIUZAIBOLANYUSHAEHEGESAKEJUNDEZHANZHENGQUYUBAIREHUA,BOLANGUOJIAMIANLINSHENGSICUNWANGDEGUANJIANSHIKE,“ZIYOUXUANWANGZHI”YINFADEEGUOQUEBUQIERZHI。1655NIAN,RUIDIANCHENGXUGONGXIANBOLANDAPIANLINGTU,RUIJUNHAOWUJIEZHIDISHAOSHAQIANGLVEYIJIXIEDUTIANZHUJIAOXINYANGDEXINGJING,JIQILEBAOSHOUQURU、JIE、PINQIONGHEJIBINGJIANAODEBOLANRENDEDIKANG,SUIZHEOUZHOUDUOGUOLUXUCANZHAN,ZUIZHONGPOSHIRUIDIANYU1660NIANYUBOLANQIANSHUHUIFU“YUANZHUANG”DEHEYUE。“BORUIZHANZHENG”DAOZHIBOLANRENKOURUIJIAN,BINGSANGSHILEDUIPULUSHIDEZONGZHUQUANHELIWONIYADEDABUFENDIQU。

虎扑足球  1648—1660NIANDE“HONGLIU”ZHONGJIELEBOLANDE“HUANGJINSHIDAI”,BOLANCONGCIYIJUEBUZHEN,KAISHIBURUMANZHANGDUOCHUANDESHUAILUOSHIQI。ZONGSHANG,BOLANDE“HUANGJINSHIDAI”BENZHISHANGZHISHIFENGJIANGUIZUDE“HUANGJINSHIDAI”,QIXINGSHUAICHENGBAIHENDACHENGDUSHANGGENXIYUGUIZUWENHUADEFAZHAN,ERGUIZUWENHUAZHUIQIUDEJIBENZHUNZEJIQILIXIANGHUADEGUANNIANZEXIANGYIBASHUANGRENJIAN,ZAIWEIHUGUIZUDE“HUANGJINZIYOU”BINGYOUCIKAICHUANGGUOJIASHENGSHIDETONGSHI,YELINGGUIZUCHENGWEI“OUZHOUDEXIAOBING”,LINGGUIZUQUANYIZHUDAODEGONGHEGUOCHENGWEI“YIZUOLINHUOSHANXIANDEFENDUI”,QI“JIYUTONGZHIJIEJIZIYOUDEZHENGZHIZHIDUYUJIYUWANQUANYAZHIXIACENGJIEJIDESHEHUIZHIDUZHIJIAN”GUYOUDEMAODUN,ZEZHUDINGLEBOLAN“HUANGJINSHIDAI”DESHUAILUO。

  (作者单位: 中国社会科学院世界历史研究所)

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