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中文
大西洋史学研究新趋势
2019-11-24 来源:虎扑足球 作者: 魏涛
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  ZUOWEIDANGDAIXIFANGSHIXUEDEZHONGYAOFENZHI,DAXIYANGSHIXUEZHUZHANGBADAXIYANGNEIBUJIQIZHOUBIANDEDAOYU、GUOJIAHEQUYUDENGZUOWEIYIGEZHENGTILAIJINXINGYANJIU。ZAIDAXIYANGSHIXUEJIAKANLAI,CHUANTONGDEYIGUOJIAWEIZHONGXINDELISHIXUSHIYOUZHEMINGXIANDEJUXIANXING,QIENANYIJIESHIKUAGUOJIEHUOKUADAXIYANGCENGMIANDEGELEILISHIXIANXIANG。YINERBUFENLISHIXUEJIATICHU,YINGCONGDAXIYANGSHIJIAOLAIYANJIUNANMEIZHOU、BEIMEIZHOU、FEIZHOUHEOUZHOUZAIGELINGYUDEHUDONG,YIMIBUGUOWANGYANJIUZHONGDEYIXIEBUZU。

  大西洋史学研究渐受重视

  ERZHANHOU,DAXIYANGSHIXUEZAIOUMEISHIXUEJIEXINGQI。1947NIAN,FAGUOLISHIXUEJIAYAKE·GEDEXIAOCHUBANLE《DAXIYANGDELISHI》YISHU,ZHEISHIOUMEISHIXUEJIEDIYIBENYONGDAXIYANGLAIMINGMINGDESHIXUEZHUANZHU。1955NIAN,GEDEXIAOHEMEIGUOLISHIXUEJIALUOBOTE·PAERMOYIQI,ZAILUOMAZUOLETIWEI《DAXIYANGDEWENTI》DEYANJIANG,HUYUOUMEILISHIXUEJIACONGDAXIYANGSHIJIAOYANJIUOUZHOUHEMEIGUODELISHI。PAERMOCONG20SHIJI50NIANDAIHOUQIKAISHISHIYONG“DAXIYANGSHI”ZHEIGESHUYU,TONGSHIDUIDAXIYANGYANANGEGUODELISHIJINXINGLEBIJIAOYANJIU。

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  20SHIJI90NIANDAICHUYILAI,DAXIYANGSHIXUEZHUJIANCHENGWEIOUMEISHIXUEJIEDEYIGEREMENYANJIULINGYU。LIRU,MEIGUOCHAERSIDUNXUEYUANJIUTONGGUOSHELI“KALUOLAINAYANHAIDIQUHEDAXIYANGSHIJIE”XIANGMU,GULIXUEZHEYANJIUNANKALUOLAINAYANHAIDIQUYUDAXIYANGSHI。GAIXUEYUANHAIYUMEIGUONANKALUOLAINADAXUECHUBANSHEHEZUO,CHUBANCONGDAXIYANGSHIJIAOYANJIUNANKALUOLAINALISHIDEZHUANZHU,BINGBATAMENSHOULUZAI“KALUOLAINAYANHAIDIQUYUDAXIYANGSHIJIE”XILIETUSHUZHONG。1997NIAN,MEIGUOLISHIXUEJIAKALUN·KUPOMANZAINIUYUEDAXUELISHIXIJIANLILEDAXIYANGSHIJIEGONGZUOSHI,XIWANGYICILAIXIYINGENGDUODEXUEZHECONGSHIYIDAXIYANGSHIWEIZHUTIDEXUESHUYANJIU。2004NIAN,OUZHOUXUEZHECHUANGBANLEMINGWEI《DAXIYANGYANJIU: QUANQIUCHAOLIU》DESHIXUEZAZHI,ZHUANMENKANZAIDAXIYANGSHIHEQUANQIUSHIFANGMIANDELUNWEN。DAXIYANGSHIYANJIUDEXINGQIHAICUSHIOUMEIXUDUODAXUEKAISHELEXIANGGUANKECHENG。

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  四个研究新取向

  JINRU21SHIJIYILAI,DAXIYANGSHIXUEYANJIUCHUXIANLEZHONGYAOZHUANXIANG,ZHUYAOTIXIANZAIYIXIAJIGEFANGMIAN。

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虎扑足球  QICI,ZHONGSHIKUAYANGQUXIANG,SHITUBADAXIYANGHETAIPINGYANG、YINDUYANGYIJIQITAHAIYANGDELISHIJIEHEZAIYIQI。ZUOWEIYIGECENGJINGDEZHIMINDIGUO,YINGGUODESHILIFANWEIYIDUKUOZHANGDAOLEBEIMEIHEYINDU。MEIGUODULIZHANZHENGHOU,YINGGUOSUIRANSHIQULEZAIBEIMEIDEZHIMINDI,DANJIAKUAILEZAIYINDUZHIMINKUOZHANGDEBUFA。YINGGUOLISHIXUEJIABIDE·MAXIEERCENGJINGXIANGXIKAOCHALEYINGGUOZAIDAXIYANGHEYINDUYANGDIQUDEHUODONG,JIQIHAIWAIKUOZHANGZAIBEIMEIHEYINDUSHIRUHECHENGXIANDE。SHOUQIQIFA,NIANQINGYIDAIDEDAXIYANGSHIXUEYANJIUZHECHANGSHIBADAXIYANGYUQITAHAIYANGDELISHIZHENGHEZAIYIQI。ZAI《HAIDAO、SHANGREN、TUOZHIZHEHENULI: ZHIMINSHIQIDEBEIMEIYUYINDU—DAXIYANGSHIJIE》YISHUZHONG,MEIGUOXUEZHEKAIWEN·MAIKEDUONADEFENXILEHAIDAO、SHANGREN、BAIRENTUOZHIZHEHEFEIZHOUNULIZAIBEIMEIHEYINDUYANGDIQUDEHUODONG,YESHITUZONGHEYANJIUYINDUYANGHEDAXIYANGDELISHI。MEIGUOXUEZHEKELAIER·SICHENZHUZHANGCONGBIJIAOSHIYELAIKAOCHAHAIDAODELISHI,BINGCHANGSHIYANJIUDAXIYANGDIQUYUDIZHONGHAIDIQUDELISHIHUDONG。TAMENDEYANJIUCHENGGUOSHUOMING,YUELAIYUEDUODENIANQINGXUEZHEBUZAIBADAXIYANGDIQUDANGZUOYIGEFENGBIDEDILIQUYU,ERSHISHITUBADAXIYANGYUYINDUYANGYIJIQITAHAIYANGZHIJIANDELIANXIZHENGHEZAIYIQI。

虎扑足球  ZAICI,JIANCHIBANQIUQUXIANG,BINGSHITUBANANBANQIUHEBEIBANQIULISHIJIEHEZAIYIQI。ZAIGUOQUHENZHANGYIDUANSHIJIANLI,DAXIYANGSHIXUEJIAMENYAOMEZHUANZHUYUYANJIUBEIDAXIYANGDELISHI,YAOMEJIZHONGYANJIUNANDAXIYANGDELISHI,GELIELEBEIBANQIUHENANBANQIUZHIJIANDELIANXI。2009NIAN,GELINZHUANXIELETIWEI《BANQIUSHIYUDAXIYANGSHI》DELUNWEN,TICHUBANQIUSHISHIDUIDAXIYANGSHIDEZHONGYAOBUCHONG,BINGGULIXUEZHELIYONGBIJIAOFENXIDEFANGFALAIYANJIUNANBANQIUHEBEIBANQIUZAIXIANGGUANZHUTISHANGDECHAYIXING。2010NIAN,MEIGUOXUEZHELIBEIKA·HUOENHEAILIKE·XINDEKETICHUJIANYI,XIWANGLISHIXUEJIABABEIMEIZHOU、ZHONGMEIZHOUHENANMEIZHOUDELISHIJIEHEZAIYIQI,BINGTANTAOTAMENGONGXIANGDELISHI。2016NIAN,MEIGUOXUEZHEKAITELIN·FEICICHUBANDE《HUPUZUQIUDEJIEMEIGONGHEGUO: MEIZHOUGEMINGSHIDAIDEMEIGUO》YISHU,SHIBANQIUSHIYANJIUDEZHONGYAOCHANGSHI。SHUZHONGZHONGDIANFENXILE18SHIJIMO、19SHIJICHUDELADINGMEIZHOUHEMEIGUORENMINSHIRUHEWEIDUIFANGZHENGQUDULIDEHUODONGTIGONGZHICHIDE。GAISHUDECHUBANGULIYANJIUMEIGUOSHIHELADINGMEIZHOUSHIDEXUEZHETUPODILIQUYUSHANGDEXIANZHI,TUIDONGDAXIYANGSHIXUEYANJIUZOUXIANGSHENRU。

虎扑足球  ZUIHOU,JIANCHIQUANQIUQUXIANG,ZHUZHANGCONGQUANQIUSHIYELAIYANJIUDAXIYANGSHI,LITUTUPOSHIYESHANGDEJUXIANXING。2007NIAN,MEIGUOXUEZHEQIAOZHI·KANISALEISI-AISIGUILAHEAILIKE·XIMANHEBIANLELUNWENJI《QUANQIUSHIZHONGDEDAXIYANG: 1500—2000》,SHITUCONGQUANQIUSHIJIAOLAIYANJIU16SHIJIZHI21SHIJIDEDAXIYANGDIQULISHI。ZAI《CHAOYUEDAXIYANGSHI》ZHEIPIANLUNWENZHONG,MEIGUOLISHIXUEJIAPITE·KEKALANISITICHUDAXIYANGSHIXUEFANSHI“RENWEIDIXIANZHILEQIFENGXIANZHEDESHIYE”,BINGQIANGDIAODAXIYANGSHIXUEJIAYINGGAODUZHONGSHIDAXIYANGDIQUYUQUANQIUQITADIQUDELIANXI,YIMIBUDAXIYANGSHIXUEDEBUZU。

  2015NIAN,MEIGUOXUEZHEKELISITUOFU·SITELUOBEIERCHUBANDE《QUANQIUDAXIYANG: 1400—1900》YESHIYIBENCONGQUANQIUSHIYEYANJIUDAXIYANGSHIDEDAIBIAOXINGZHUZUO。ZAIZHEIBENZHUANZHULI,SITELUOBEIERBADAXIYANGZHIYUQUANQIUSHIYEXIA,TAOLUNLEQICONG15SHIJIZHI20SHIJIDELISHI。TAZHICHU,RUGUOGELIEDAXIYANGYUMEIZHOU、FEIZHOUHEYAZHOUZHIJIANDELIANXI,NEIMEHUPUZUQIUJIUNANYILIJIEKUADAXIYANGMAOYIWANGLUODEXINGQIHEFAZHAN。SITELUOBEIERTICHULE“QUANQIUDAXIYANG”ZHEIGESHUYU,GULIXUEZHEMENCONGQUANQIUSHIJIAOYANJIUDAXIYANGDELISHI,YIJIDAXIYANGYUQITAHAIYANGZHIJIANXIANGHUGUANLIANDELISHI。

  LUDIQUXIANG、KUAYANGQUXIANG、BANQIUQUXIANGHEQUANQIUQUXIANGDELIUXING,SHUOMINGDAXIYANGSHIXUELITUBAITUOQIZISHENDECHUANTONGJUXIAN,BINGRANGYOUGUANYANJIULINGYUZHONGHUANSHENGJI。LUDIQUXIANGYOUZHUYULISHIXUEJIABALUDISHIYUHAIYANGSHIJIEHEZAIYIQI。KUAYANGQUXIANGYOUZHUYULISHIXUEJIAJINYIBUTANSUODAXIYANGYUQITAHAIYANGZHIJIANDELIANXI。BANQIUQUXIANGKEYIBANGZHULISHIXUEJIABABEIDAXIYANGHENANDAXIYANGDELISHIJIEHEQILAI,KAOCHATAMENZAILISHIJINCHENGFANGMIANDECHAYIXINGHEXIANGSIXING。QUANQIUQUXIANGZELITUTUPODAXIYANGDILIQUYUDEXIANZHI,CONGQUANQIUSHIYELAIYANJIUGAIDIQUDELISHIBIANQIAN。ZHEISIZHONGQUXIANGWEIDAXIYANGSHIXUEYANJIUZHURULEXINDEHUOLI,YOUZHUYUTUIDONGQIJINYIBUFAZHAN。

  (作者单位: 中国社会科学院世界历史研究所)

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